Problem Statement
We have users in multiple countries and different vernacular for the same entity. Is it possible to create an alias for a record type that displays for users with a specific profile so we can use the same record types and records, yet have the customization between different countries? It’s almost like using translations, but it’s all within the English language.

Example: Record Type “Municipality” vs. “Local Authority” for same records
Everyday users see Municipality
UK users see Local Authority

Possible Solutions

Terrence: Look at the new Translation Workbench feature. The Translation Workbench allows you to create translations for the customizations you’ve made to your Salesforce.com organization. Everything from custom picklist values to custom fields can be translated so your global users can use all of Salesforce.com in their language.
Go to Setup | Admin Setup | Translation Workbench.

Tom: You may also be able to utilize the Tags function. Setup / Customize / Tags.
This would enable each user to “tag” the field with the name that they are comfortable with. That would help them with the different names in different areas.

Paul: Unfortunately I don’t see how either of these options will work. The translation workbench does not specify English and English (UK) as two different languages, and I imagine if you set someone’s language to another language like Spanish then all of the standard tabs and fields are in that language. I don’t see how to change the translations for standard tabs and fields in the workbench.

The tag feature is for tagging records, it does not allow you to tag fields, and it has to be done for each record.

I think you have two options:

One option is just to make all the fields have both names, like State/Province. In your example just rename the field Municipality/Local Authority. You can even rename standard fields under Setup > Customize > Tab Names and Labels. RECOMMENDED Solution

Your other option is to create two fields for each one that you want to modify. Setup a workflow rule or trigger that automatically updates the matching field whenever it’s entered. Then create two different page layouts that are used based on the user’s profile (so UK users would have to have a different profile from US users).

Depending on the number of fields that you’re talking about, the second one could get really complicated.

Discussion @ Salesforce Linked In